Nuclear security involves implementing a series of pre-emptive measure to prevent eternal and/or external threat directly or indirectly related to nuclear materials, radioactive sources, relevant facilities or other associated activities. In the late cross- border transfers of nuclear materials increased with the growing use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The aim of nuclear security was to ensure stability in the supply of nuclear fuel by preventing the illegal seizure of nuclear materials in transit. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union managing existing nuclear materials and facilities within the former soviet territory emerged as a priority issues, with an emphasis on disarmament and the protection of and the reduction in the number of nuclear materials and facilities. Following the 9/11 attacks in 2001, the possibility of terrorists misusing nuclear materials and facilities become a real threat, and nuclear security was highlighted as a means to combat the threat of nuclear terrorism.
- 24 to 25 march, 2014 The Nuclear Security Summit was held in The Hague (Netherlands).
- It was the third edition of the conference, succeeding the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit.
- The 2014 summit was attended by 58 world leaders (5 of which from observing international organizations), some 5000 delegates and 3000 journalists.
- The representatives attending the summit included U.S. President Barack Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping.
- The main goal was to asses which of the objective, that were set at previous summit Washington D.C. (2010) and Seoul (2012), had not been accomplished.
- The Nuclear Security Summit aimed to prevent nuclear terrorism by:
Reducing the amount of dangerous nuclear material in the world
Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and plutonium can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons. However HEU is also used in research reactors and for medical isotope production. Plutonium is used by some countries as fuel for nuclear power plants. The leaders gathered at the nuclear security summit aim to minimize the use of these materials the amount kept in storage and the number of storage locations, keeping in mind the uses beneficial to mankind.
Improving the security of all nuclear material and radioactive sources
Worldwide, security of nuclear installations, material and other radioactive sources is improving. The actions that countries have taken show that this issue is high on their leaders, agendas. Physical protection has been enhanced, legislation has been updated to comply with international guidelines, and countries are establishing training centers to train and certify security personnel. In terms of the broader picture, work is under way to make nuclear installations, material and other radioactive sources an even harder target than they already are by increasing the probability of getting caught, i.e. to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials, by enhancing detection and nuclear forensic capabilities.
Improving international cooperation
International cooperation is improving. Countries cooperate on the basis of a range of international agreements, guidelines and initiatives, as well as in international organizations. All these forms of cooperation should together form coherent and comprehensive nuclear security architecture.
- The basis of the international nuclear security architecture, the 2005 amendment to the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material (amended CPPNM), must enter into force as soon as possible. Since the 2010 summit, 19 NSS participants have ratified the amendment, of which seven have done so since the summit in Seoul. 14 NSS countries reported that they were in the process of passing the necessary legislation. During the Summit in The Hague, 33 countries committed to fully implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 on the non- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and undertake to develop a national action plan.